Hormonal contraceptive means the birth control measures which act on endocrine system of human being. Hormonal contraceptive methods are very popular as well as effective birth control measures all over the world. A large number of populations all over the world have been using these methods of birth control in order to prevent pregnancy. However, there are different types of birth control methods. Hormonal contraception is one of them. In this method, hormones are used as medication to prevent ovulation. This method includes contraceptive pills, Depo Provera injections and Norplant.
Contraception or birth control is a means to prevent pregnancy which works by interfering with the process of ovulation, also called as fertilization or implantation. There are different measures of birth control which can help in achieving contraception. Before taking any preventive measures it is important to understand how the ovulation cycle works.
The Ovulation Cycle
In every month the women’s body release an egg or the ovum which matures, and the mucus is secreted from the cervix which is an organ placed at the lower end of women’s uterus. Further the lining of uterus grows in preparation for receiving a fertilized egg when sperm comes in contact with it. Birth control (contraception) are designed to interfere in the normal process of birth and prevent pregnancy which may occur. There are multiple kinds of birth control measures that can be used at different points during the process, right from ovulation to fertilization till implantation is done. Each method comes with its own consequences and risks. Some of the methods proven to be more reliable are mentioned below.
Oral contraception’s :
They include tablets which is taken by mouth or orally. The birth control pills are the ideal example of Oral contraception’s and must be taken every day. These pills contain estrogen and progestin that are known to suppress ovulation.
- May cause vomiting, severe diarrhea.
- Not suitable for overweight women.
- May have side effects like headache and nausea.
These are the soft rubber cap which are placed around the cervix region, also known as Spermicides. The Cervical cap is obtained by doctor’s prescription. They are inserted just before the intercourse. It may be sometimes difficult to insert. The failure rate is between 17-23%, depending on type of cap.
- You can feel its constant presence and may be irritating at times.
- Can cause infection if the metal gets corroded from inside.
This is a condom with lubricated sheath material which is to be inserted in the vagina.It has a shape similar to male condom, and comes with a circular flexible ring.
The Female Condom is applied immediately before the intercourse, and is allowed for single use only. The failure rate is 21 %.
- May sometimes get pushed within the vagina.
- It may split or tear during intercourse.
The Male Condoms are made of Latex or materials like polyurethane sheath and is supposed to be placed over an erect penis before intercourse and is recommended for single use only. They are widely available in any medical drugstores. Condoms give best protection against all kinds of sexually transmitted diseases. But non-latex condoms don’t prevent the spreading of HIV and other STDs.
- It may slip off or break during intercourse if wrong size used.
- May prove to be allergic to some people.
It’s a hormonal medication injection that inhibits the ovulation process, this injection is obtained by prescription and it taken in every three months. The failure rate is less than 1 percent.
- May cause irregular periods, weight gain and effects fertility.
Diaphragm with spermicide:
Diaphragm are dome-shaped with rubber disk that can cover the cervix. Diaphragm are given only with prescription. Diaphragms are inserted before the intercourse and should be left in place at least for minimum six hours. The failure rate is about 17 percent.
- Use of spermicide is must.
- Size needs to be changed after baby.
The feminine douche is used immediately after the intercourse to wash out the accumulated sperm. But Douching has proved to be ineffective as the sperm travel very quickly to cervix. It has a failure rate of 40 percent.
The intra uterine devices is T-shaped which is inserted in the women’s uterus to avoid pregnancy. IUD’s can be kept in the uterus for the span one, five till 10 years, depending on your need. IUD’s are proved to be safer as they have a failure rate of less than 1 percent. You need to worry about fertility once it’s inserted.
- Heavy menstrual periods or menstrual cramping may occur with the use of IUD.
- It may cause spotting or irregular bleeding.
Surgical Tubal sterilization is a form of surgery done by tying tubes around the cervix. A doctor must perform the sterilization procedure in a hospital or a surgical clinic. The use of anesthesia is must during the surgery. This sterilization may cause infection and bleeding.
- May cause discomfort.
- Once opted for you cannot reverse it.
- Does not protect from STD’s.
Also known as emergency contraceptive pills are similar to the normal birth control pills, with an only difference that it must be consumed within 72 hours or 3 days of having unprotected intercourse. These pills are proven to reduce pregnancy risk up to 80 percent.
Spermicide is a foam kind of creamy film a bit jelly type, suppository or tablet which contains nonoxynol-9.Spermicide is inserted between five to ninety minutes before the intercourse and must be left in place for six to eight hours post that. Spermicide has a failure rate between 20-50 percent.
- This tablet causes irritation in vaginal tissues and may increase risk to STD as they don’t kill HIV causing viruses or any other STD causing viruses.
- Spermicides may be allergic to some people and may beirritating to the skin.
The contraceptive patch has a small patch that stick to the skin and controls the release of estrogen and progestrogen. It is proved to stop ovulation giving 99 percent effective. It helps get periods lighter and be more regular. No need to worry about adding or removing it. New patch is added may be once in a week or three times in week, following by no patch for one week.
- Make cause some problems to smokers and overweight women.
- Make increase the risk of breast and cervical cancer
May lead to temporary side effects like headaches, mood swings, breast tenderness, and nausea.
Contraception means birth control process, which prevents pregnancy. There are many methods of contraception. Over the time there has been numerous changes taking place regarding the contraceptive methods. Some methods of contraception are:
- Long acting reversible contraception for example, Implant.
- Hormonal contraception like the birth control pills
- Barrier method , which includes condoms and Diaphragm
- Fertility awareness
- Emergency contraception and
- Permanent contraception or Sterilization , for example Vasectomy and tubal ligation
A person can use any of these methods of contraception depending on the situation, i.e. health, age etc. of the person. Though these methods cannot give 100% result yet many of these are effective if used faithfully.
Some of the barrier methods of contraception:
Barrier method prevents the sperm into entering the uterus. Barrier methods include Condom, Diaphragm, cervical cap, Spermicidal sponge, foam etc.
Condoms are one of the most popular contraceptives used by people now a day in order to prevent pregnancy. There are both Male and Female condoms. A male condom is a thin cover made of latex rubber. It is worn to cover the penis while doing intercourse.
It prevents the sperm in entering the uterus and thus prevents pregnancy. On the other hand, female condom is a sheath which is inserted in the female sex organ. The sheath acts as barrier to the sperm to come into the contact of cervix. Condoms should be removed immediately once the intercourse is over. It should not be reused and both the partners should never use condoms at a same time.
Condoms are very effective measures of contraception used to prevent pregnancy. If used perfectly then condoms can be effective up to 98% in preventing pregnancy. The condoms which are made of latex are effective in preventing the sexually transmitted diseases like HIV AIDS also.
Both male and female condoms do not have any side effects. But some time it may cause irritation or allergy to the user. Now a day condoms are available in almost all the stores. These are less expensive and easy to use. Since condoms prevent the STDs so these are recommended by physicians also.
Diaphragm is another measures of contraceptive used to prevent pregnancy. It is a shallow cup shaped soft and thin thing made of silicon or latex. It is inserted into the female sex organ to cover the cervix. It is used as a barrier so that the sperm cannot come into contact with the cervix. In order to get best result, one should use it with spermicide. It should be left for at least 6 hours after the intercourse. Then it can be taken out and washed. Diaphragms are reusable. Diaphragms are available in different sizes and can be used the right size with the help of a doctor. Diaphragm does not give protection against the STDs.
There are four types of diaphragms available. These are:
- The arching spring diaphragm
- The coil spring diaphragm
- The flat spring diaphragm and
- The wide seal rim diaphragm
So with the help of a doctor one can find out the type of diaphragm suitable for her.
Diaphragm is effective when it is used with spermicide. It can give 92-96% accuracy in preventing pregnancy. After using, diaphragm can be removed easily and can be re used. It should be washed with warm water. However no detergent or oil based product should be used to clean the diaphragm.
Using of Diaphragm is very easy and convenient. One can easily use this before going to do intercourse. And one most important thing is that it does not have any serious health issue. However sometime it may cause urinary tract infection and vaginal irritation. Once it is seen, one should immediately contact the physician.
The Intra Uterine Device which also stands for, is another method of birth control used by women to prevent pregnancy. It is the small device which is shaped as T-shaped which is wrapped in copper. It contains hormone in it. The IUD in the uterus is inserted with the help of a doctor. It is one of the most effective, safe and reversible contraception processes of all. There two different types of IUD. These are:
- Hormonal IUD: These releases levonorgestrel. It is form of progestin hormone. It prevents pregnancy for 3-5 years. It prevents pregnancy by killing the sperm. Skyla and Mirena are two brands of IUD under this category.
- Copper IUD: it is one of the most commonly used IUDs. A copper IUD is used for up to 10 years. It releases copper from the copper wire as copper is very toxic to sperm. It helps the uterus in producing fluid, which kills the sperms. It very effective kind of contraceptive.
The IUD is inserted by a doctor. It can be inserted at any time. The insertion procedure is very simple sometime needs a small surgery.
The IUD is a highly effective birth control method. It can give almost 100% accuracy regarding prevention of pregnancy. Apart from this it is less expensive contraception and it does not cause any weight gain. It is a reversible process i.e. it can be removed if one wants to be pregnant. And once it is removed, fertility returns quickly to the woman without causing any problem. It does not interfere in the process of intercourse. The women who need birth control in a long term basis, IUD are the best option.
However there are some side effects of hormonal IUD. These side effects depend on the type of IUD one is used. It may cause breast tenderness, headache, acne etc. Apart from these, it may cause infection when it is put in. A copper IUD may cause heavy bleeding during periods. However, if any symptoms are seen, though rare, then one should immediately contact the physician.
So to conclude, it can be said that these are some contraceptive methods used by women. Among different processes of contraception, these fall into the category of barrier method. These all are very popular and effective birth control measures.